The Conquest of the Desert campaign was the cause that changed the lives of the first nations that dwelled in this area. According to historical research, these nations would have been the Tehuelches, tribal groups that used to inhabit the present territory of La Pampa and whose presence is considered as the first human traces in the area.
The Desert Campaign destroyed the lifestyle of these peoples with the exploitation of their lands through the use of modern technologies unknown to that date. Thus, in 1882, when the military campaigns came to an end, the government granted 15,000 newly conquered leagues, which had been usurped from the native peoples, to the new land owners.
In 1883, the first livestock venue in the area, managed by Mr. Tomás Mason, was inaugurated in the lands granted to his son-in-law, Colonel Renigio Gil. It was Mason who dared to create a town in those lands. He was a brave man with an enterprising spirit.
Mason started to tempt foreigners who passed by this settlement, such as León Safontás, a 26-year-old French man who was immortalized as the first denizen in this town. Later on, the site began to be populated by countless families, such as the Monniers, the Bousquets and the Lacherals. More people, mostly French, came from Trenque Lauquen. Finally, Mason managed to found the town (which continued growing) officially on April 22, 1892.
Agriculture and livestock, which had been reaffirmed in the area in 1920s and 1930s, used to be and still are the most important and booming activities in this place. They provide Santa Rosa (capital of the Province of La Pampa) the character of a thriving population that works the land, as well as a tourist destination in constant growth.